Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Alhambra

After quite a while of returning so as to encounter direct the tales behind the world's most noteworthy works of art, I chose to enjoy a reprieve in examining visual workmanship and enlarge my points of view a piece. I remained up the entire night on which experience to take straightaway, and the throughout the night thought drove me to a choice to take another adventureâ€to take on Architectural works of art. First stop, the world-well known Alhambra in Granada, Spain. I returned 12 centuries in time, right to the ninth centuryâ€the rule of the Islamic attack of Spain.The Zirites, who are the primary rulers of Granada, had the Alhambra developed for military reasons. They fabricated their mansions on the slope over the Alhambra, making the structure a fortification for prospective assaults from foreseen victors. Pressure was noticeable all around consistently during this point, however it didn't prevent me from valuing the excellence of the structure that is Alhambra. Despite the fact that still not completely created, its undeniable Arabesque styleâ€a sort of Islamic craftsmanship with dull mind boggling, geometric examples of joining plant, creature, and theoretical formsâ€makes it a sight to behold.I have just perused in workmanship and history books that the Alhambra as a post would go on until the thirteenth century, so I chose to skirt the exhausting part and take myself to 1238. It was now when the Alhambra was utilized as a living arrangement of the lords. During this time, it was the Nasrites who governed the Islamic realm in Spain. The Alhambra was later on evolved to incorporate a â€Å"alcazaba† (post), a â€Å"alcazar† (royal residence) and a little â€Å"medina† (city), still with Islamic craftsmanship controlling the whole of the structures.The old fortification was later on reestablished; the works of art created to arrive at the maximum capacity of its excellence. This, thus, meant the Golden Age of Islam in Sp ain. Maybe it was the mind-boggling stunningness over the incredible engineering of the Alhambra and the chills it gave me just by seeing a few pieces of its basic structure which moved me to one more century. Before I know it, it was 1492, and Granada was not, at this point involved by the Islams.Catholicism was taken back to Spain, and the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabel vanquished the city, making the Alhambra a Christian court. Military battalions and holy places were worked inside the compound, consolidating Catholicism into the Islamic engineering. For quite a long time the Alhambra transformed into a Catholic city based on Islamic roots, yet as years passed, the incredible design wonder was left disregarded. I was then shipped to the nineteenth century, and it stunned me to discover the Alhambra vacant, with the exception of by criminals, hobos, and destitute people.It struck me so hard that in a matter of moments I returned to introduce time. Presently, as I am compos ing this, the Alhambra is now an UNESCO World Heritage Site, and a solid contender for the New Seven Wonders of the World. The Alhambra being perceived as one of the most significant structures and engineering works of art in the whole world makes me so pleased that I was a piece of history when everything occurred; however I was only an observer, I got the chance to encounter the rich culture where the Alhambra was established, and the bright history it had withstood.References Crayon, G. (1832). The Alhambra. London: Samuel Bentley. Lipscomb, K. (2005). Tracker Travel Guides: Spain. New Jersey: Hunter Publishing, Inc. Irwin, Robert. (2004). The Alhambra. London: Butler and Tanner Ltd. Woman's rights. (n. d. ). In Encyclop? dia Britannica on the web. Recovered from http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/point/724633/women's liberation Granada, The Alhambra. (n. d. ). In Andalucia Website. Recovered from http://www. andalucia. com/urban areas/granada/alhamhistory. htm Arabesque: Art Movement. (n. d. ). In Art Education. Recovered from

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

The Rise of Livestreaming Why People Watch, and How Brands Can Benefit

The Rise of Livestreaming Why People Watch, and How Brands Can Benefit Very recently we entered the year 2019, and it goes without saying that most of the world is connected via the Internet.It is obvious that as we enter further and further into the digital era that we are not only keeping track of what is happening around the world but are also sharing our thoughts, ideas, and experiences with our friends, family, and followers.It seems that social media platforms which we use on a regular basis, whether we are talking about Facebook, Instagram or YouTube, just to name a few, are some kind of checkpoints in a large system of information which is an important part of our global village.FIRSTHAND EXPERIENCEFrom a Daily User’s Point of ViewTo put things into perspective of what I am talking about, we need to look at our daily habits of interaction on the Internet.The people and pages we follow, the news we read, the videos we watch or better yet the never-ending source of new information which are presented to us by simply tapping a screen or clicking a button share one important thing â€" an audience.Seems logical enough right? Yet again sometimes we forget that we all play a part in a large stage show called social media. Some play the roles of the main actor; some are just a part-time attraction, while most of us are innocent bystanders.Behind the SceneNow you may be wondering who is behind all this, who are the people who make content for us to watch and enjoy? That is a difficult question to answer if you keep in mind that anyone can post anything they want on their social media profile at any given time.Having said this, and knowing the hard climb into Internet stardom and gaining mass popularity in general, when we talk about the main actors of this so-called show program known as the Internet we could list them by several categories:YouTubers â€" vloggers, gamers, informative content creators, fashion and make-up tutorials, podcasts and many others could be included in this category.Famous actors, singers, musicians â€" t heir fans want to know everything about their day-to-day life and get news about their new projects.Great thinkers and writers â€" these are reserved for people who appreciate their work, and want to learn more about them.Politicians and businessmen â€" coming from someone who is a great deal interested in politics, I can assure you that there is no better way to be in touch with the latest news concerning politics than to watch and read tweets right from the source.Sportsmen â€" this needs to be included in the list because of a large audience that these people and their matches attract.THE RISEWhy do people actually watch live-streams?In my previous explanation, I wanted to point out some key elements of what makes someone or something popular to provide a better understanding of why people actually watch that content.Now my main goal is to pinpoint what kind of content is shown through live-streams and how live-streaming changed the course of social media altogether.There are two major reasons people watch live-streams:Keeping up with the world â€" as our world is changing at a very quick pace, being in sync with all big events is much easier if you tune in right when those events take place and not waiting to hear about them later on through some other information channels.The down-fall of Television â€" knowing that you can find more content and live-streams on the Internet than your TV channels much quicker and easier than ever before.How does this change the game?It is obvious that with the option of live-streaming you can tune into any program, podcast, football match and so on, at any time and place whether you are using your phone, laptop or computer.This option attracts people and gives them the opportunity to keep track of all their interests and get the content that they want to see all in one place.I’m now making a list similar to the in the previous introduction but with some changes, pointing out the categories of content rather than the acto rs themselves:Gaming â€" you may be shocked to find out that internet gaming has one of the largest audiences in the world and platforms like YouTube and especially Twitch offer lots of live-streams at any given time of players playing all kinds of games.Social media â€" we are all aware of both Instagram and Facebook stories and live videos, and the importance of views and followers because they show the relevance and reach of the content.Podcasts â€" there are many different types of podcasts depending on the content itself and I’m going to make a short list of some of them:InterviewsConversationalEducationalSolo-castsStorytellingSports matches â€" I’ve mentioned them before and believe they are an important group of content due to the fact that there are not only many sports events every day but also a large number of fans who want to watch their favorite team or athlete and how they perform.Now that we talked about why people watch live-streams and what is popular in the int ernet community, it is time to dwell deep into the question of how to use live-streaming to present your product to the viewers.MARKETING 101Consumers’ PsychologyWe had an introduction about the viewers and consumers perspective and by doing so we made a foundation about the subject of branding products on live-streams.Whether you have just started out as a young entrepreneur or maybe you are a part or in charge of a big company, you need to know a little bit of consumers’ psychology what makes a person buy a product when they watch a live-stream and see some kind of advertisement for that specific product?I will be giving a more detailed answer to this puzzling question later but for now, I wanted to make a short list of things that can be advertised via live-stream. Keep in mind that there are various types of things that can be branded and presented so I will try my best to put them all in the following groups:Websites â€" whether we are talking about the promotion of sites for companies in development or just standard site advertising, the principle is the same â€" the website needs to be at least somewhat connected to the content being viewed.Products â€" branding your products that you want to sell don’t strictly need to be associated with the content and this is done by either signing contracts with the person or group of people that are making the stream giving your product a shout-out or maybe even reviewing it.Events and shows â€" this one are simple, if you are organizing an event you can pay the streamer to give it a shout-out, maybe even getting the streamer to be part of the event to attract more visitors.I know this list isn’t full of information about the exact types of products and websites that can be branded, but knowing the fact that there is so much out there that can be advertised during a live-stream I will make it up to you by giving specific examples of the way all of this works. Examples for Branding a Product1.  Gaming Commu nityYes, I’ve mentioned gaming before and now I’m mentioning it again â€" games make a lot of money both for the developers who make them and to big companies who advertise their products through them.How it works is you enter a live-stream, you see the streamer is wearing branded headphones and using branded computer equipment, he is drinking some branded energy drink and so on. It sounds silly but this gets viewers interested in the product which the streamer is using and they want to buy it because they believe he is using quality products.We all know the gamers are paid to use, wear or even drink specific brands, and this creates an illusion to the viewers that the brand is a good one, which more often than not turns out to be true because big brands that do these kinds of advertisement are known to be the best of the best. It’s more about boosting the name of the brand than tricking people into buying it.Also, gamers get paid to advertise certain websites which either hav e some link to the games they are playing or are simply useful for learning, reading, making music etc.Gamers dont seem to care too much about what they are advertising because they either need the money from the ads or they already got money from competing in gaming events so keep that in mind if you are planning to start branding your products on live-streams.2. Sports MatchesSomeone would think that I am a sports fanatic due to the fact that I’ve already talked about sports events twice in this discussion but now it’s time to explain at what I was getting at the whole time.When you watch a live stream, for example, a football match, you are sure to spot advertisement wherever you look. Whether it is on the jersey of the team, or below the grandstand, big companies tend to pay a lot of money for their products to be advertised at these big events.Im going to do some of the advertising myself and mention the classic example of Nike and Adidas.Now it doesnt matter if you are a f an of Nike or Adidas or even neither, these brands are living proof of how much profit there is to make when you are a company for sporting equipment and how to effectively present your product to the world of sports.3. Social MediaIf you ask me there is no better way to market your product if you are a company in development or an entrepreneur than using the benefits of Instagram or Facebook live videos.Some people became famous for having lots of followers on Instagram and more often than not you can see those people advertise all sorts of products like beauty products and clothing brands.Due to the fact that live videos are a common practice in both the world of Instagram and Facebook, this can be a great way to present your product to some kind of an audience, because you have to start somewhere.The good thing about social media also is that lots of celebrities use it and we already talked about how their fans want to find out everything they do in their life. This can be used t o your advantage if you are a big company and big companies actually do it all the time by letting famous people wear their brand of clothes for example, or use other kinds of products. 4. PodcastsI’ve left podcasts to be the last example simply because there is a lot to talk about and a lot of things can be branded by paying the streamers for advertisement.Not to mention that podcasts are a great way to even present your product or website altogether by maybe having the streamers review it or talk about the features of the product in some part of the stream.Maybe you want your website for language courses to be advertised, for example, you could get in contact with a podcast streamer and ask him to advertise your website at one point of his show.Now depending on the price or even the interest of the streamer you will either succeed or fail at this, but since you are a small company and there are lots of streamers who are willing to present any given product, you shouldn’t have a problem finding the right streamer for the job.On the other hand, if you are a big company known for your product and it’s quality but want your brand to have a greater reach to the audience I’m sure that any streamer would be glad to take your offer to advertise it because it benefits them too.Again I’m going to advertise a brand, specifically a website, in order to give you a better example of what I’m aiming at. I want to mention Skillshare, it is an online learning platform where you can learn a wide range of subjects and languages and also teach online and earn money.Now I’ve seen this website being advertised in all sorts of videos but never really took a chance to visit it, but that’s not important. What’s important is that everything depends on the type of product which you want to advertise and where you should do the actual advertising.If you want to present your website for learning languages as we mentioned, you should try to find a podcast where they tal k about linguistics or where the podcasts are in different languages for example.The same goes for big brands, for example, Nike should try to find a podcast where they talk about what is cool and ‘fresh now for the younger generation due to the fact that teenagers like to spend a lot of money on expensive sneakers.Use these examples as some kind of retrospect of what type of product can be advertised in which live-stream.HOW TO START USING THE POWER OF LIVE-STREAMFrom Ideas to ProfitWe talked about why people watch live-streams, how companies can use this to market their product and also gave some examples of specific brands that made it big time.If you also want to make it big and earn a lot of money and you consider starting a company, or you already have a company but want to make, even more, you first need to know three things:Ideas, ideas, and ideas â€" you see I changed the famous Hilton phrase a little bit, but I did it to get you to pay attention to the most important thi ng when it comes to business, because without a new idea, chances are you wont be able to attract the audience you want to attract.Startup capital â€" you’ve got to invest in your idea in order for it to become a reality, nothing ventured nothing gained.Knowing the market â€" and better yet knowing your consumers, this is where live-streaming can be used to get a better perspective of what is being watched and what viewers most pay attention to.That being said, now we can move on to some tips on how to start a business, and efficiently place your product on the market of live-streaming.Getting StartedYou have your idea, you have some cash lying around waiting to be spent, you did some research on the market, and the question is â€" what now?Things tend to get a little complicated around this part mainly because lots of ideas have failed due to the lack of innovation or poor marketing, but an important thing to remember is that you have to keep trying.You need a group of experts wh o can make your idea into a reality and also present your product the right way, doing it by yourself is a slippery slope because it takes a lot of time, energy and money to do this correctly.When you finally get your idea to work and the product is finished, you will be faced with the ultimate task of branding your product correctly. This is where I think that live-streaming can help you substantially in achieving your goal.Get to Know Your ConsumersI can’t stress out this enough, in order for you to do well in marketing you need to know what your buyers want and at which specific groups of people to aim your product.You need to do some homework on:Knowing the age group of your buyers and what kind of live-streams they watch.The region where a specific group of viewers lives and in which languages they watch the stream.Common interests of the viewers because a large portion of them will be interested in your product if it has something to do with the stream they are watching.Type s of streams and who the streamers are because it will be easier to find that one stream that suits your needs.Number of streams with similar content due to the fact that if your product is being advertised on multiple streams, chances are you will earn a lot more money.The Benefits of Live-StreamThere are huge benefits that live-streams have to offer to brands who want to advertise their product, and I’m going to list a few of them:It is cheaper than television â€" TV commercials are very expensive and can cost you a fortune for just a couple of seconds of airing.Timing â€" if you have a contract with a streamer you can choose when to advertise your product, this is usually done at the beginning or the end of live-stream.Advertisement during live-stream breaks â€" some live-streams have commercial breaks like TV programs, creating space for advertisement and this is a lot cheaper than TV ads as we said already said.Live-streams give you the flexibility and the resources that you need in order to have your brand be presented in a way that both benefit your brand and the consumers. You place your product on the market, the streamer gets paid and the buyer has more information on your product and will be more willing to pay for it. IN CONCLUSIONI wanted to summarize all that has been told in this article by saying that there are no limits when it comes to marketing a product through live-stream mainly because live-streaming has been on the rise relatively short, but that just means it will be a more useful and efficient tool for advertising in the future.Keep track of all that has been said, explore the market, and get to know the viewers, find out to which group of people to present your product, watch the streams yourself and analyze their reach in terms of views because the most popular stream will help you introduce the audience with your brand.All in all, the way to success is right at your fingertips, literally, it is up to you how you will use the resou rces given to you and how will people react to your product.   The marketing world is full of ups and downs and you must not lose hope even if you are struggling in the beginning.Now go out there and use the power of live-streaming to your advantage and achieve your goal. If you fail, which I hope you won’t, you can sit back and watch your favorite football team live and at half-time think about your next new idea.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Mental Health And The Mental Aspect Of Health - 1497 Words

The concept of positive health is prominent in modern society, with a strong correlation between maintaining a physically healthy lifestyle, and optimum functioning. But this is not the only component of health that is necessary for full functioning. The World Health Organization (WHO) (2014), state that in fact health is more than the mere absence of disability, as it also includes mental and social well-being. This essay will focus on functioning and disability in relation to the mental aspect of health. Mental health is a state of well-being that allows an individual to be able to work in a productive manner and cope with the stresses of daily life (WHO, 2014). It has two key components; hedonic well-being, which includes happiness and interest in life, and eudaimonic well-being, which is the realization of potential (Ryan Deci, 2001). With this in mind, the salience of a strong and positive mental health becomes clear. A decrease in the functional capabilities of an individ ual, in at least one health-related domain, is known as a disability (Cieza, Oberhauser, Bickenbach, Chatterji Stucki, 2014). Often a disability, whether physical or mental, will have a significant and long-standing effect on functioning (, 2015). This can be measured through the concept of burden, which is the disparity between the individual’s current and ideal health situations (WHO, 2000). The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) (WHO, 2000), is measured using disability-adjustedShow MoreRelatedPsychological And Psychological Aspects Of Mental Health1951 Words   |  8 PagesMental Health- Normal or abnormal. Mental health is described as a state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life. The impairment of behaviour in psychological and interpersonal disciplines in daily life are some of the aspects that are more likely to be considered as a sign of abnormality. Another aspect of abnormality in society is that whenRead MoreInadequacy Of The United States Mental Health Care System1104 Words   |  5 PagesStates Mental Health Care System: Barriers to Care According to the World Health Organization, mental illness will affect approximately 25% of people at some point in their life (â€Å"WHO Qualityrights†, n.d.). Despite that, the current mental health care system in the United States is inadequate. Many aspects of the system need improving, especially the barriers to service. In fact, approximately 20% of individuals are left without necessary treatment for their mental health disorder (â€Å"Mental Health†Read MoreLack Of Treatment For Mental Illness1523 Words   |  7 Pages Problem Statement: The World Health Association defines ‘good’ health as: â€Å"a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.† However, in the United States, access to care and funding for mental health care are grossly neglected and underfunded in comparison to other aspects of health care. At the individual level, lack of proper treatment for poor mental health and mental illness has a detrimental effect. At a population level, societyRead MoreThe Health Care System Of Canada1460 Words   |  6 Pagesreasons will usually include the free health care. The health care system is one aspect of Canada that makes citizens patriotic and proud and makes those from other countries, like the United States, a bit envious. 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The reason being the fact that, the social background acts as a, constrain on their part in terms of awareness and availingRead MoreThe Affordable Care Act And The Substance Abuse And Mental Health Service Administration?786 Words   |  4 PagesAbuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA), which is a part of the US Department of Health and Human Services have promoted and established ways to enhance the quality of the treatment and the amount of treatment given. Overall Approach Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration’s overall goal is promote, reduce, and prevent mental illnesses and substance abuse on American communities which is also referred to as behavioral health (Substance Abuse and Mental Health ServiceRead MoreHow Cultural Beliefs Affect Our Lives1237 Words   |  5 PagesWhen looking at the different aspects affecting Appalachians, it is important to understand how cultural beliefs may affect aspects of their lives. 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In 2011 and 2013, I had twoRead MoreWhat is the Definition of Health?939 Words   |  4 PagesWhere there is life there is health. In 1948 the World Health Organization defined health as â€Å"a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.† Whereas previously, health had be identified as solely the absence of disease or infirmity. Through research and study, it was recognized that health is the domain of physical and mental functioning. The state of health is then the degree to which these functions are in equilibrium with the physicalRead MoreLearning : Articulating Your Learning898 Words   |  4 Pagesthe beginning of the semester, I had thought of mental health as a simple term that defined a person’s well-being. However, after taking this course, I have been exposed to different perspectives on the term mental health by watching videos, hearing my classmates own lived experiences, and learning abou t the DSM-5. The first new perspective that I have gained from this class is the logistics of someone’s mental health, in which a person’s mental health would be diagnosed. Through the DSM-5, we as professionals

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Review Of The Week The National Review - 2005 Words

The Week. The National Review. Steve Bannon got fired for leaking information, he claims Trump’s heroic phase is over and white supremacy is a â€Å"tiny and impotent fringe†. Mitch McConnell and Trump are fighting about how long it takes a health-care bill to get through. Julius Krein wrote a new policy Journal with a well thought out defense for Trump, but then revoked it after hearing Trump’s response to Charlottesville. Mitt Romney thinks Trump should have chosen his words more carefully when responding to Charlottesville, The National thinks Romney should choose his words more wisely in general. The people running for Jeff Session’s senate seat are not favorites among the author, so much so he prefers Session back. In Iceland, it is†¦show more content†¦ISIS is preforming genocide and the U.S. is trying to pass a bill for the state and Justice departments to join and help countries identify and punish genocide in their homelands. U.S. and Can adian government officials have been deafened by some sonic device while visiting Cuba, nobody knows who is doing it and why. Hong Kong was supposed to be living in a democratic and liberal society with a one-party dictatorship, but the authorities are not letting that happen and have jailed three protesters. Colin Kaepernick will be put in the National Museum of African American History and Culture for kneeling during the National Anthem, the author believes he is undeserving of this because he brought more attention to himself than the cause. The University of Southern California students are calling their mascot a racist symbol, because the name resembles Robert E. Lee’s favorite horse’s name, but the horse itself is paid for with an endowment so the author thinks it is not going to be removed. The author mourns the loss of the Republican consultant Arthur Finkelstein, in the authors opinion he was one of the best consultants and had a â€Å"virtuous hand† in the election of James L. Buckley to junior senator of New York. Trump’s Afghan Escalation by The National Review. Instead of Trump pulling out all the troops from Afghanistan and ending the war like he said he was going to, he is working to end the war without leaving mass amounts ofShow MoreRelatedStrategies To Reduce Falls In Long Term Care Falls Case Study798 Words   |  4 PagesFalls in Long Term Care Facilities Problem statement: According to Quality Improvement Organization Health Services Advisory Group, Alabama’s state average for falls without injury is 41.9% with the National average being slightly higher at 45%, falls with injury in Alabama is 3.2% with the National average being 3.4%. 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Carbon Trading Free Essays

string(38) " are getting what you are paying for\." Carbon Trading: Future Money Making Venture for India Sarika Gupta Assistant Professor, P. M. B. We will write a custom essay sample on Carbon Trading or any similar topic only for you Order Now Gujrati Commerce Collage, Indore Abstract Carbon Trading are generated by enterprises in the developing world that shift to cleaner technologies and thereby consumption, consequently reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. For each tone of carbon dioxide (the major GHG) emission avoided, the entity can get a carbon emission certificate which they can sell either immediately or through a futures market, just like any other commodity. The certificates are sold to entities in rich countries, like power utilities, which have targets to achieve and find it cheaper to buy ‘offsetting’ certificates rather than do a clean-up in their own backyard. This trade is carried out under a mandated international convention on climate change to help rich countries reduce their emissions. Carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas produced by combustion of fuels, has become a cause of global panic as its concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere has been rising alarmingly. This devil, however, is now turning into a product that helps people, countries, consultants, traders, corporations and even farmers earn billions of rupees. This was an unimaginable trading opportunity not more than a decade ago. Introduction Carbon Trading are a part of international emission trading norms. They give incentives to companies or countries which emit less carbon. The total annual emissions are capped and the market allocates a monetary value to any shortfall through trading. Businesses can exchange, buy or sell Carbon Credit in international markets at the prevailing market price. India and China are likely to emerge as the biggest sellers and Europe is going to be the biggest buyers of Carbon Credit. India is one of the countries that have ‘credits’ for emitting less carbon. India and China have surplus credit to offer to countries that have a deficit. India has generated some 30 million Carbon Credits and has roughly another 140 million to push into the world market. Waste disposal units, plantation companies, chemical plants and municipal corporations can sell the Carbon Credits and make money. Carbon, like any other commodity, has begun to be traded on India’s Multi Commodity Exchange for last 3-4 years. MCX has become first exchange in Asia to trade Carbon Credits. Carbon Trading certify the removal of greenhouse gas from the air or the prevention of greenhouse gas emissions. Each carbon credit is associated with a single tone of carbon dioxide. There are many different kinds of Carbon Trading. How does Carbon Credit save the planet? As nations have progressed we have been emitting carbon, or gases which result in warming of the globe. Some decades ago a debate started on how to reduce the emission of harmful gases that contributes to the greenhouse effect that causes global warming. So, countries came together and signed an agreement named the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol has created a mechanism under which countries that have been emitting more carbon and other gases (greenhouse gases include ozone, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and even water vapor) have voluntarily decided that they will bring down the level of carbon they are emitting to the levels of early 1990s. Developed countries, mostly European, had said that they will bring down the level in the period from 2008 to 2012. In 2008, these developed countries have decided on different norms to bring down the level of emission fixed for their companies and factories. A company has two ways to reduce emissions. (a) One, it can reduce the GHG (greenhouse gases) by adopting new technology or improving upon the existing technology to attain the new norms for emission of gases. (b) Or it can tie up with developing nations and help them set up new technology that is eco-friendly, thereby helping developing country or its companies ‘earn’ credits. India, China and some other Asian countries have the advantage because they are developing countries. Any company, factories or farm owner in India can get linked to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and know the ‘standard’ level of carbon emission allowed for its outfit or activity. The extent to which I am emitting less carbon (as per standard fixed by UNFCCC) I get credited in a developing country. This is called carbon credit. These credits are bought over by the companies of developed countries mostly Europeans because the United States has not signed the Kyoto Protocol. How does it work in real life? Assume that British Petroleum is running a plant in the United Kingdom. Say, that it is emitting more gases than the accepted norms of the UNFCCC. It can tie up with its own subsidiary in, say, India or China under the Clean Development Mechanism. It can buy the ‘carbon credit’ by making Indian or Chinese plant more eco-savvy with the help of technology transfer. It can tie up with any other company like Indian Oil, or anybody else, in the open market. In December 2008, an audit will be done of their efforts to reduce gases and their actual level of emission. China and India are ensuring that new technologies for energy savings are adopted so that they become entitled for more Carbon Trading. They are selling their credits to their counterparts in Europe. This is how a market for carbon credit is created. Every year European companies are required to meet certain norms, beginning 2008. By 2012, they will achieve the required standard of carbon emission. So, in the coming five years there will be a lot of carbon credit deals. Where do Carbon Trading fit in the planet saving action plan? 1. Recognize that everything we do has associated greenhouse gas emissions 2. Reduce your emissions. 3. Offset with fully certified Carbon Trading today (because the planet can’t wait) Certification: the difference between carbon offsets and Carbon Trading There are many retailers offering uncertified carbon offsets. Purchasers should avoid carbon offsets that don’t come with a certification as they provide no guarantees that you are getting what you are paying for. You read "Carbon Trading" in category "Essay examples" All certifications are not equal There are many different kinds of certification available globally. Before you buy, make sure that the certification comes from a trusted third party source. For larger orders Carbon Planet can source any kind of certified carbon credit you seek. However, we do recommend our standard premium stock of NGACs. Find out more about our procurement policies we enforce when sourcing Carbon Trading for you to buy. Carbon Planet currently offers 2 different kinds of certified Carbon Credit as standard stock: 1. Forestry Sequestration NGACs from Forests NSW 2. Carbon Saving NGACs from Showerhead and Light bulb replacement. Forestry Sequestration NGACs The New South Wales Greenhouse Abatement Certificate (NGAC) certification process is comprehensive. It includes Kyoto Protocol measures, but goes beyond these. In summary the NGAC certification process ensures the following: * That each NGAC represents one tone of carbon dioxide stored for at least 100 years. * That the trees have been planted since 1990. * That the trees weren’t planted on old growth forest cleared land (the land must have been clear prior to 1990). * That should the tree from which your carbon credit came come to any harm within 100 years of your purchase e. g. fire, disease, logging; that carbon credit will be replaced immediately from another source. From NSW Government â€Å"When can a forest manager create NGACs† NSW Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme Fact Sheet Published: October 2004). Forests NSW’s carbon pool is audited annually to ensure that every carbon credit issued corresponds to one tonne of carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere for 100 years. Carbon Saving NGACs Carbon Planet’s current stock of Carbon Saving NGACs is g enerated from shower head and light bulb replacement. This is called Demand Side Abatement. The NGAC certification ensures, with a high level of confidence, that at least one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent has been saved per carbon credit. Thus by purchasing a monthly subscription of NGAC Carbon Trading, you can continuously erase your CO2 footprints. Procedure of trading in carbon: (i) What is Clean Development Mechanism? Under the CDM you can cut the deal for carbon credit. Under the UNFCCC, charter any company from the developed world can tie up with a company in the developing country that is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. These companies in developing countries must adopt newer technologies, emitting lesser gases, and save energy. Only a portion of the total earnings of Carbon Trading of the company can be transferred to the company of the developed countries under CDM. There is a fixed quota on buying of credit by companies in Europe. (ii) How does MCX trade Carbon Credits? This entire process was not understood well by many. Those who knew about the possibility of earning profits, adopted new technologies, saved credits and sold it to improve their bottom line. Many companies did not apply to get credit even though they had new technologies. Some companies used management consultancies to make their plan greener to emit less (Green House Gas) GHG. These management consultancies then scouted for buyers to sell Carbon Trading. It was a bilateral deal. However, the price to sell Carbon Trading at was not available on a public platform. The price range people were getting used to was about Euro 15 or maybe less per tone of carbon. Today, one tone of carbon credit fetches around Euro 22. It is traded on the European Climate Exchange. Therefore, you emit one tone less and you get Euro 22. â€Å"Emit less and increase/add to your profit† MCX is the futures exchange of India. People here are getting price signals for the carbon for the delivery in next five years. The exchange is only for Indians and Indian companies. Every year, in the month of December, the contract expires and at that time people who have bought or sold carbon get or take delivery. They can fulfill the deal prior to December too, but most people wait until December because that is the time to meet the norms in Europe. The MCX decides to trade Carbon Credit because they are into futures trading. Let people decide, if they want to hold on to their accumulated Carbon Credit or sell them now. If the buyer thinks that the current price is low for him, he can wait before selling his credits. The Indian government has not fixed any norms nor has it made it compulsory to reduce carbon emissions to a certain level. So, people who are ready to buy from Indians are actually financial investors. They think that if the Europeans are unable to meet their target of reducing the emission levels by 2009 or 2010 or 2012, then the demand for the carbon will increase and then they can make more money. So the investors are willing to buy now to sell later. There was a huge requirement of Carbon Trading in Europe before 2012. There are parameters set and detailed audit is done before you get the entitlement to sell the credit. In India, already 300 to 400 companies have Carbon Trading after meeting UNFCCC norms. Only those Indian companies that meet the UNFCCC norms and take up new technologies will be entitled to sell Carbon Trading. Till MCX came along, these companies were not getting best-suited price. Some were getting Euro 15 and some were getting Euro 18 through bilateral agreements. When the contract expires in December, it is expected that prices will be firm up then. On MCX we already have power, energy and metal companies who are trading. These companies are high-energy consuming companies. They need better technology to emit less carbon. These Carbon Trading are with the large manufacturing companies who are adopting UNFCCC norms. Retail investors can come in the market and buy the contract if they think the market of carbon is going to firm up. Like any other asset they can buy these too. It is kept in the form of an electronic certificate. The registry and the ownership travel from the original owner to the next buyer. In the short-term, large investors are likely to come and later banks are also expected to get into the market too. This business is a function of money, and someone will have to hold on to these big transactions to sell at the appropriate time. Price Determination Like in the case of any other asset, its price is determined by a function of demand and supply. Now, norms are known and on that basis European companies will meet the target between December 2008 and 2012. People are wondering how much credit will be available in market at that time. As December gets closer, it is possible that some government might tinker with these norms a little if the targets could not be met. If these norms are changed, prices can go through a correction. But, as of now, there is a very transparent mechanism in which the norms for the next five years have been fixed. Governments have become signatories to the Kyoto Protocol and they have set the norms to reduce the level of carbon emission. Already companies are on the way to meet their targets. It is a safe market because it is a matter of having more information on the extent of demand and supply of carbon credit market. Analyzing Indian Scenario India being a developing country has no emission targets to be followed. However, she can enter into CDM projects. As mentioned earlier, industries like cement, steel, power, textile, fertilizer etc. emit green houses gases as an outcome of burning fossil fuels. Companies investing in Windmill, Bio-gas, Bio-diesel, and Co-generation are the ones that will generate Carbon Credit for selling to developed nations. Polluting industries, which are trying to reduce emissions and in turn earn Carbon Credit and make money include steel, power generation, cement, fertilizers, waste disposal units, plantation companies, sugar companies, chemical plants and municipal corporations. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) A must mention project is The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC): It has become the first rail project in the world to earn Carbon Credit because of using regenerative braking system in its rolling stock. DMRC has earned the Carbon Credit by using regenerative braking system in its trains that reduces 30% electricity consumption. Whenever a train applies regenerative braking system, the released kinetic energy starts a machine known as converter-inverter that acts as an electricity generator, which supplies electrical energy back to the Over Head Electricity (OHE) lines. This regenerated electrical energy that is supplied back to the OHE that is used by other accelerating trains in the same service line. DMRC can now claim 400,000 CERs for a 10-year crediting period beginning December 2007 when the project was registered by the UNFCCC. This translates to Rs 1. 2 crore per year for 10 years. India has the highest number of CDM projects registered and supplies the second highest number of Certified Emission Reduction units. Hence, India is already a strong supplier of Carbon Credit and can improve it. BENEFITS FOR INDIA By, switching to Clean Development Mechanism Projects, India has a lot to gain from Carbon Trading: a) It will gain in terms of advanced technological improvements and related foreign investments. b) It will contribute to the underlying theme of green house gas reduction by adopting alternative sources of energy. ) Indian companies can make profits by selling the CERs to the developed countries to meet their emission targets. TRADING OF CERS: †¢ As a welcome scenario, India now has two Commodity exchanges trading in Carbon Credit. This means that Indian Companies can now get a better trading platform and price for CERs generated. †¢ Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX), India’s largest comm odity exchange, has launched futures trading in Carbon Credit. The initiative makes it Asia’s first-ever commodity exchange and among the select few along with the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCE) and the European Climate Exchange to offer trades in Carbon Credit. The Indian exchange also expects its tie-up with CCX which will enable Indian firms to get better prices for their Carbon Trading and better integrate the Indian market with the global markets to foster best practices in emissions trading. †¢ On 11th April 2008, National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX) also has started futures contract in Carbon Trading for delivery in December 2008. †¢ MCX is the futures exchange. People here are getting price signals for the carbon for the delivery in next five years. The exchange is only for Indians and Indian companies. Every year, in the month of December, the contract expires and at that time people who have bought or sold carbon will have to give or take delivery. They can fulfill the deal prior to December too, but most people will wait until December because that is the time to meet the norms in Europe. If the Indian buyer thinks that the current price is low he will wait before selling his credits. The Indian government has not fixed any norms nor has it made it compulsory to reduce carbon emissions to a certain level. So, people who are coming to buy from Indians are actually financial investors. They are thinking that if the Europeans are unable to meet their target of reducing the emission levels by 2009, 2010 or 2012, then the demand for the carbon will increase and then they may make more money. So investors are willing to buy now to sell later. There is a huge requirement of Carbon Trading in Europe before 2012. Only those Indian companies that meet the UNFCCC norms and take up new technologies will be entitled to sell Carbon Trading. There are parameters set and detailed audit is done before you get the entitlement to sell the credit. Financing support in India: †¢ Carbon Trading projects requires huge capital investment. Realizing the importance of Carbon Trading in India, The World Bank has entered into an agreement with Infrastructure Development Finance Company (IDFC), wherein IDFC will handle carbon finance operations in the country for various carbon finance facilities. †¢ The agreement initially earmarks a $10-million aid in World Bank-managed carbon finance to IDFC-financed projects that meet all the required eligibility and due diligence standards. †¢ IDBI has set up a dedicated Carbon Credit desk, which provides all the services in the area of Clean Development Mechanism/Carbon Credit (CDM). In order to achieve this objective, IDBI has entered into formal arrangements with multi-lateral agencies and buyers of Carbon Trading like IFC, Washington, KfW, Germany and Sumitomo Corporation, Japan and reputed domestic technical experts like MITCON. †¢ HDFC Bank has signed an agreement with Cantor CO2E India Pvt. Ltd and MITCON Consultancy Services Limited (MITCON) for providing carbon credit services. As part of the agreement, HDFC Bank will work with the two companies on awareness building, identifying and registering Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and facilitating the buy or sell of Carbon Credit in the global market. International moves to promote energy self-sufficiency and cut carbon emissions will create a unique opportunity for innovative start-ups to emerge as key infrastructure players over the next few years. The transition to a low-carbon economy will spark a period of historic flux within the business community, characterized by fast-emerging companies and heightened mergers and acquisition activity across the clean tech sector. The global trade in Carbon Credits has taken off fairly well with the turnover going up from $11 billion in 2005 to $118 billion in 2008. Carbon markets investments planned have exceeded all expectations. But the resistance to the idea seems to be gathering steam with many in the developed countries pointing out procedural deficiencies and arguing that Carbon Credits will confer unfair advantages on companies in developing countries like China and India, the major sellers of carbon credit. But despite growing opposition, the concept of Carbon Credits continues to soar steadily, boosting the number of emission-reducing projects in the pipeline from 490 in end-2005 to 4,782 in November 2009, and pushing up the total Carbon Credit supply from 704 million CERs to 2,820 million CERs during the period. One reason the concept of Carbon Credits has gained popularity is its ability to create a political alliance of forces on opposing sides like Left-wing environmentalists and free market proponents. While the former believe that the polluters have no significant incentives for self-regulation and have to be curbed through government intervention, the latter believe that such command and control intervention would wreak havoc and that the market would eventually offer an optimal solution. Carbon trading regulations helped break the impasse by providing a clear target that the environmentalists could embrace, while at the same time favoring the market mechanism over governmental regulation as advocated by the Right. An added advantage of the Carbon Credits is that it optimizes investments in emission-reduction projects by encouraging projects in countries where the cost of reducing emissions is the least, which generally goes in favor of developing countries. Countries like India have favored carbon trade, as it offers a win-win situation for both entrepreneurs and the broader society. While innovative companies that help reduce emissions are provided with Carbon Credits, which they can encase to boost viability or earn profits, the gains to society accrue in the form of a smaller destabilizing impact on the environment. Opportunities for carbon-efficient companies in India IFC and Standard ; Poor’s have launched the world’s first carbon-efficient index for emerging markets that aims to mobilize more than $1 billion for carbon-efficient companies over the next three years. The innovative S;P/IFC Carbon Efficient Index will encourage carbon-based competition among emerging-market companies, give carbon-efficient companies access to long-term investors, and should help reduce carbon emissions in developing countries. The index was developed by S;P using carbon data provided by environmental data provider Trucost. IFC provided financial support to the S;P/Trucost consortium to accelerate the carbon research on emerging-market companies, and it provided technical support to help validate and refine the methodology. The rollout of smart grid and renewable energy technologies will also usher in transformative alliances between automakers, utilities, battery makers, communications providers and renewable energy firms as they each seek to play a role in the development of integrated low-carbon infrastructure projects. Companies that identify their roles and capitalise on these new alliances earliest will establish sizable leads in nascent clean technology markets. New forms of public-private partnerships will be necessary in creating a ubiquitous, national smart grid, but these new models of collaboration must be closely managed to ensure technologies are rolled out quickly and effectively. Underpinning these clean technology transformations is increased support from the investment community Referances * Mathews, John A. 2008) â€Å"How Carbon Credits could drive the emergence of renewable energies†http://ideas. repec. org/a/eee/enepol/v36y2008i10p3633-3639. html * www. rediff. com/money/2008/feb/05inter. * www. carbontrading. com/c/ * ions Trading; Joint Implementation; Clean Development Mechanindex. php%3Fa†¦ – Cached – Similar * Carbon Tredits India. Emissism (CDM) †¦ India has generated approximately 30 Million Carbon Credits and approximately www. globaladvisors * Carbon Credits; by Garg A . in Chartered Secretary November , 2009. * National solid waste of India . News letter, February 2007. How to cite Carbon Trading, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

United States and the Asia

The Cold War dominated the world right from the 1940s up to around 1990s. During this period, various countries that were allied to either the United States or to the Soviet Union engaged in protracted battles or military aggressions with one another. Although the two powerful countries never really engaged in a large-scale fight, the military tension between them presented a potential threat of a global nuclear war.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on United States and the Asia-Pacific Region Countries Relationships specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Each side was actively engaged in trying to acquire new allies, which they sought to subsidize with economic aid, especially in terms of military weaponry. However, the United States became stronger after the collapse of the Communist movement in 1960, following China’s withdrawal. Subsequently, the United States developed the â€Å"containment policy† that paralyzed and eventually collapsed the Soviet Union in 1991. This marked the onset of significant changes to the America’s Foreign Policy (Shambaugh Yahuda, 2009). Counter-attack Strategy After 1991, the United States foreign policy of alliance-building was replaced with counter-attack strategy. As a result, the federal government significantly reduced its expenditure on foreign policy and Cold War defense. Instead, it focused on thwarting any military invasions that threatened global peace. For example, when Saddam Hussein carried out a surprise attack on Kuwait in 1991, the United States responded by forming a military alliance that successfully stopped the invasion. However, the alliance did not capture Saddam, leaving him free to cause trouble for much longer time. This military goof was attributed to lack of a clear vision for a foreign policy by the United States. Under President Clinton, the US, working under the United Nations, also successfully stopped ethnic wars i n Yugoslavia. It was during this time that the United States focused on using diplomacy as opposed to war against its perceived enemies. Particularly, President Clinton’s administration developed closer ties with the Asia-Pacific region in a bid to stem out military tension. They sought to identify themselves with any country that had no intentions of pursuing nuclear weaponry and condemned those that did. According the Department of Defense, military intervention would only be necessary to stop countries from developing nuclear weapons, which were considered a great threat to the world (Cai, 2011). Military Engagement Although the country focused more on domestic economy, it continued to get involved in internal security issues of most countries in the Asia- Pacific region. For example, the United States maintained its military bases in South Korea for a long time in an attempt to deter the country’s pursuit of nuclear weaponry. In addition, it attempted to neutralize China’s influence in Asia by increasing its military presence in most Asian states. However, these policies have proved unsuccessful as South Korea’s nuclear bases continue to strengthen and China’s influence becomes unrivalled. In fact, later attempts to resuscitate diplomacy with these countries have, in most cases, failed. In 2007, for instance, a Free Trade Agreement between South Korea and the United States failed at the point of ratification.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is due to deep-seated mistrust that had been cultivated between these countries due to poor foreign policies by the United States. In addition, this mistrust has caused the emergence of an ideological war with China, which is fast emerging as an economic as well as military power base in Asia (Cai, 2011). The United States has always tried to contain China and prevent it from emerging as a world military power. Although it initially treated China with great hostility, the country has opted to using diplomatic means to address China. This, however, sometimes goes overboard, especially when insults or weird accusations are used by both countries. For example, China has in many occasions been forced to do what the United States wanted them to do, like the incorporation of Tibet. Basically, it has been a combination of both diplomacy and military exercise (Calder and Min, 2010). Policies of the Obama Administration It is the Obama administration that has significantly changed America’s foreign policy of Asia-Pacific. This administration has always re-affirmed and demonstrated willingness to forge alliances with most countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In doing this, it has embarked on solving the economic and security threats of the region instead of earlier policies of the war on terror. For example, when President Obama visited Australia i n 2011, he received a very warm welcome, signifying that his administration had finally won over the hearts of the country’s leaders. In reminding Australians of their close ties running from war in Afghanistan to the Aussies, the President used diplomacy to break historical tension that has consistently hampered their bilateral relations. The Obama administration has also welcomed China’s rise as a military power, as well as an economic challenger. In fact, it has picked out ideological misunderstandings as the reason behind their past hostilities. Nonetheless, both governments have committed to increase their influence in the region in order to deter global threats to peace (McDougall, 2007). The new approach of mutual cooperation is likely to benefit both countries economically. There is little doubt that Asia-Pacific region is the fastest growing region in the world. Thus, it creates several jobs and economic opportunities that Americans also benefit from. In addit ion, the region has also developed as the world’s center for nuclear power and human population. These developments have left the United States with little options, but to cooperate with China.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on United States and the Asia-Pacific Region Countries Relationships specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is probably the reason why President Obama has promised that their military involvement in Afghanistan is the last in the region. The United States government certainly wants to recognize China as a great military power that is capable of dealing with most of the region’s challenges. In fact, it has realized that diplomatic approach will record better success in increasing US influence in the region. Although the historical hostility is still eminent, the United States seems quite disinterested in military influence, but on economic participation. Recently, the United States h as tried to persuade China to make their International Trade rules more flexible to allow for more bilateral trade. However, it remains to be seen if the China will reciprocate this gesture by opening up to international trade (MacIntyre Ravenhill, 2008). In conclusion, the collapse of the Soviet Union eased the tension created by the Cold War. However, the United States seized the opportunity to stomp their authority on all countries in the Asia-Pacific region by thwarting their economic and military development. It resulted in their military participation in South-North Korean war, Vietnam War and the Iran-Iraq war. It was China that defied the United States and established themselves as a strong economic power. Currently, China is said to have outsmarted the United States in almost all aspects, especially in nuclear power. As a result, the Obama administration has had to change tact and adopt a diplomatic approach to the region. References Cai, K G 2011, The Political Economy of East Asia: Regional and National Dimensions. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. Calder, K Min, Y 2010, The Making of Northeast Asia. Stanford University Press, Stanford. MacIntyre, A, Pempel, T Ravenhill, J 2008, Crisis as Catalyst: Asia’s Dynamic Political Economy. Cornell University Press, Denver.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More McDougall, D 2007, Asia Pacific in World Politics, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Colorado. Shambaugh, D Yahuda, M 2009, International Relations of Asia, Rowman Littlefield Publishers, Maryland. This essay on United States and the Asia-Pacific Region Countries Relationships was written and submitted by user Mary Jane Watson to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.